RDA講習會課程概述

 

研習課程 : RDA講習會

主辦單位 : 國家圖書館、中華民國圖書館學會

研習時間 : 民國101年3月21-23日

參加研習及資料整理者 : 傅美靜 / 圖資處

內容如下 :

 

一、什麼是RDA ?

1. RDA = Resource Description & Access. 是為因應當今及未來網路、數位、雲端環境下處理所有資源而制訂的新編目規則,冀以更符合網路世界資訊發展的需求。美國國會圖書館正式宣布自2013年3月31日起全面使用RDA編目規則,同時,AACR2英美編目規則即走入歷史。

2. RDA編目規則詳細全文及教育訓練文件教材網站 : http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda

3. RDA學習工具網站 : http://www.rdatoolkit.org [電子郵件至 rdatoolkit@ala.org

申請註冊 (提供申請者姓名/機構單位名稱/自設帳號及密碼),可免費使用至101年4月30日止。日後須付費。)

4. RDA產生背景說明影音檔: http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature wdesc.php?rec=4320 (須申請註冊)

5. RDA編目原則說明影音檔: http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature

wdesc.php?rec=4327 (須申請註冊)

6. RDA展望未來說明影音檔: http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature

wdesc.php?rec=4967 (須申請註冊)

7. RDA發展聯合指導委員會 (Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA)

網站 : http://www.rda-jsc.org/

8. RDA美國測試網站 : http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/rda/

9. RDA諮詢電子信箱 : LChelp4rda@loc.gov

 

二、RDA的制訂來源 : 是依據IFLA的3個國際原則

1. FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (1998) 包含

網站: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/

參考網站 : http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature wdesc.php?rec=4554

(1) Entity-relationship model (實體關聯關係)

- Entities : Group 1, 2, 3

-- Group 1 : Products of intellectual & artistic endeavor = bibliographic resources --- Work (作品) : 書名、原創作者等

--- Expression (表達描述) : 語文、年代、原創作者外其他作者等

--- Manifestation (顯示) : 出版項、檢索點

--- Item (項目) : 索書號、館藏地

-- Group 2 : Those responsible for the intellectual & artistic content = Parties

--- Person (個人作者)

--- Corporate body (團體作者)

--- Family (家族)

-- Group 3 : Subjects of works

--- Concept (概念)

--- Object (對象)

--- Event (事件)

--- Place (地點)

Subject relationship 標題間關聯性

- Relationships (實體關聯關係)

- Attributes (屬性) (即是RDA的 Elements)

(2) User tasks (使用者工作、需求)

- Find (發現)

- Identify (辨明)

- Select (選擇)

- Obtain (獲取)

(3) National level record elements (mandatory & optional data)

各國必須及可選性的書目記錄元素

 

2. FRAD = Functional Requirements for Authority Data (2009),包含

網站 : http://www.ifla.org/VII/d4/wg-franar.htm

(1) Entity-relationship model (實體關聯關係)

- Entities : Group 1, 2, 3

-- Group 1 : Products of intellectual & artistic endeavor = bibliographic resources --- Work (作品) : 書名、原創作者等

--- Expression (表達描述) : 語文、年代、原創作者外其他作者等

--- Manifestation (顯示) : 出版項、檢索點等

--- Item (項目) : 索書號、館藏地

-- Group 2 : Those responsible for the intellectual & artistic content = Parties

--- Person (個人作者)

--- Corporate body (團體作者)

--- Family (家族)

-- Group 3 : Subjects of works

--- Concept (概念)

--- Object (對象)

--- Event (事件)

--- Place (地點)

Subject relationship 標題間關聯性

- Relationships (實體關聯關係)

- Attributes (屬性) (即是RDA的 Elements)

(2) User tasks (使用者工作、需求)

- Find (發現)

- Identify (辨明)

- Contextualize (前後關係)

- Justify (判斷)

(3) National level record elements (mandatory & optional data)

各國必須及可選性的書目記錄元素

 

3. ICP = Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (2009)

網站 : http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/icc/

(1) Convenience of the user (最高指導原則)

(2) Representation                  (3) Common usage

(4) Accuracy                        (5) Significance

(6) Sufficiency and necessity       (7) Economy

(8) Consistency and standardization (9) Integration

(10) Defensible, not arbitrary     

(11) If contradict, take a defensible, practical solution

 

三、RDA編目規則架構、特色及注意事項 (Structure)

(一) 架構

(1) General introduction

(2) Elements (entities and their attributes)

Ch. 1-7 : work、expression、manifestation、item

Ch. 8-16 : person、family、corporate body、place

(3) Relationships : Ch. 17-22, 24-32

(4) Appendices

- Appendix D 包含

-- ISBD to RAD

-- MARC 21 bibliographic format to RDA

- Appendix E 包含

-- Presentation and punctuation of access points

-- MARC 21 authority format to RDA

(5) Glossary

(6) Index

(二) 特色

(1) RDA is a content standard (RDA是一個內容要旨的標準)

(AACR2 is a display standard)

(2) Focus on local user needs (強調當地使用者的需求)

(3) For wider scope of resources (涵括所有資源)

(4) Only a few closed controlled vovabularies : content、media and carrier types、mode of issuance, etc.(少數為控制詞彙)已登記註冊的詞彙清單網站 http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm)

Most are open (多數為開放自然語言,編目人員可以自行提供名詞描述)

(5) Take what you see and accept what you get (接受你所看到的款目內容,不修正、不縮寫、不省略、不改變大小寫…等)

(6) Convenience of the user (服務讀者為導向,以讀者了解語言自然著述,呼應上述第(5)點,如ill. 改以全字表示 illustration.

(7) Not by class of materials (不以圖書、連續性出版品、視聽資料等資料類型分章節,而是RDA適用於所有資源)

(8) Basic goals : identify and relate (強調元素間的關聯性 relationships)

(9) Core elements listed as a group in RDA0.6 (RDA核心元素列於RDA規則0.6)

(10) Alternatives and options、”or”instructions 、”agency eparing…”instructions (規則內,除標準編目方式外,RDA提供另一方式編目的說明)

(11) 編目專有名詞變更 :

AACR2

RDA

1. heading

Authorized access point

2. author、composer…etc.

creator

3. main entry

Preferred title + authorized access point for creator if appropriate

4. uniform title

(1) preferrd title (+ other information to differentiate)

(2) conventional collective title

5. see reference

Variant access point

6. see also reference

Authorized access point for related entity

7. physical description

Carrier description

8. GMD

分為3欄位 (1) media type +

           (2) carrier type +

           (3) content type

9. chief source

Preferred sources (仍以書名頁為主要著錄來源)

 

(三) 編目原則前12大注意事項

(1) User needs/user tasks (使用者需求): find、identify、select、obtain

(2) Take what you see (看到什麼就著錄什麼)

(3) Element-based description (屬性特質為基礎的敍述)

- easier reuse of well-formed metadata

- elements sets

- RDA registry (controlled vocabularies)

- more use of pre-existing data

(4) Work、Expression、Manifestation、Item

(5) “Core” and “Core if”…Elements – can add others

(6) Alternatives、optional omissions、optional additions

(7) Fewer abbreviations (不縮寫為原則)

(8) Relationships、 Relationships、Relationships (關聯性)

(most beyond core elements 比核心元素重要)

(9) Content、Media、and Carrier types (刪除GMD)

(10) No more “ rule of three” – instead, use cataloger’s judgement

{刪除AACR2規則,作者若3人(含)以下,全部著錄;若4人以上,著錄第1位作者 + [et al.]。改為1位及2位作者 : 全部著錄;3位(含)以上,可全部著錄,或是第1位作者 + [and xxx others],如有3位作者,作者敍述是John Smith [and two others]}。

(11) Sources for information expanded (包含更延伸的資訊,如URL (網址)。

不必在意網圵日後的新穎性及有效性。

(12) Identifying characteristics (elements and relationships) as building blocks for future systems。Talk to vendor about need for new systems。

(辨明元素及關聯性的特徵及MARC21新增欄位,告訴系統廠商因應修正。

 

四、RDA 編目規則著錄方式簡述

(一) RDA bibliographic record MARC段號及分欄

(1) Leader/18 : value “i”(ISBD)

(2) 040 $a DLC $b eng $c DLC $e rda

(二) Preferred source(主要著錄來源) : 書名頁 (source of title proper)

(三) Take and accept what you see :punctuation、abbreviations、inaccurancies、symbols、initials、numbering : generally follow that is on source。(看到作品是什麼就直接著述什麼,對於縮寫、拼字錯誤、符號、編號數字等皆不做任何修正,可在附註項更正說明)

(四) Capitalization (大小寫) :

(1) Follow in-house guidelines or preferred style manual (可依館內編目原則制定,如書名開頭第1個字的第1個字母大寫,其他為小寫)。

(2) Accept data from scanning、downloading (不做更正直接著述)。

(五) Core elements for the manifestations核心元素

項目

特色說明

對照條款

MARC21對應段號及分欄

Title proper

(正題名)

 

 

 

 

Title proper

(正題名)

The chief name of a

Resource

資源主要名稱

RDA 2.3.1-2.3.2

RDA 2.2.2-2.2.3

RDA 2.2.4

MARC 245 $a

Do not correct errors ,no more “[sin]”or “i.e._   _”(一般資源正題名若有錯誤,不要修正。不再使用[sin]或[i.e.   ]修正說明)

RDA 2.3.1.4

Do correct errors and integrate for serials (連續性出版品的正題名若有錯誤,要修正。名稱不同要統一)

RDA 2.3.2.12-2.3.2.13

 

Earlier title proper (變更前正題名)

RDA 2.3.7

 

MARC 247

Later title proper (變更後正題名)

RDA 2.3.8

 

MARC 246

 

Parallel title proper

(並列題名)

Title proper in another language.

Sources expanded to any source

(任何來源的不同語言的題名皆可著錄)

RDA 2.3.3

MARC 245 $b

Other title information

(其他題名, 如副題名)

From same as source as title proper

(依主要著錄來源著述)

RDA 2.3.4

MARC 245 $b

Statement of responsibility

(作者項)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From same as source as title proper or other sources expanded

(依主要或其他著錄來源著述)

If not give all statements of responsibility, give creator, only first recorded is required (若只著述一種著作方式,以創作者為主)

RDA 2.4.2.3

MARC 245 $c

Transcribe as found (no longer the AACR2 “rule of 3”) {1位及2位作者 : 全部著錄;3位(含)以上,可全部著錄,或是第1位作者 + [and xxx others],如有3位作者,作者敍述是

John Smith [and two others]}

RDA 2.4.2

MARC 245 $c

Edition

(版本項)

Transcribe as found : do not abbreviate or convert numerals

(依原樣著述,不要縮寫或轉換版本數字)

RDA 2.5.2

RDA 2.5.6

MARC 250 $a

Place of publication

(出版地)

More than one, only

The first recorded is required, no more “home country”(著錄第1個出版地即可)

Supply a probale place whenever possible (儘可能著錄”可能”的出版地,如[Toronto?])

If no probable place, give”[place of publication not identified], not [s.l.] (無出版地, 詳細說明出版地不詳, 不再使用[s.l.])

RDA 2.8.2

MARC 260 $a

Publisher

(出版者)

More than one, only

The first recorded is required.

(著錄第1個出版地即可)

If no publisher, give”[publisher not identified], not [s.n.] (無出版者, 詳細說明出版者不詳, 不再使用[s.n.])

Do not shorten the form of name but can omit corporate hierarchy. (團體出版者, 以全名著錄, 不要縮寫, 但可省略上層組織名稱)

Cannot supply a probable publisher, sometimes must give distribution or manufacture information

(無出版者, 著錄經銷商或製作商)

RDA 2.8.4

MARC 260 $b

Date of publication

(出版年)

Supply a probale date whenever possible (儘可能著錄”可能”的出版年,如[2010?])

If no date, give”[date of publication not identified]. (無出版年, 詳細說明出版年不詳)

If no date, only copyright date, give copyright date. (只有版權年, 著錄版權年, 如c2010)

RDA 1.9

RDA 2.7.6

RDA 2.8.6

RDA 2.11

MARC 260 $c

Series

(集叢項)

Title includes “take what you see”and the policy on capitalization

(集叢名依原樣著錄)

RDA 2.12.2

RDA 2.12.10

MARC 490 $a

ISSN of series and subseries now repeatable

(主集叢的ISSN與副集叢ISSN同時著述)

RDA 2.12.8

RDA 2.12.16

MARC 490 $x

Numbering within series and subseries

(集叢號表示與連續性出版品卷期號相同, 全名表示, 如volume 32

 

MARC 490 $v

Serials

(連續性出版品)

Numbering of serials

(連續性出版品期別編號)

RDA 2.6

MARC 362

Mode of issuance (發行方式)

-“m”for“single unit”and

 “multipart monograph”

-“s”for “serial”

-“i”for integrating resource

RDA 2.13

 

Frequencey (週期)

RDA 2.14

RDA 2.20.12.3

MARC 310

MARC 321

Identifier for the manifestation

(識別項)

-    ISBN, ISSN …etc.

-    Assigned by publishers, distributors, government agencies…etc.

-    Fingerprints

-    Music publisher numbers

-    Not URLS (不含URL)

RDA 2.14

RDA 4.6

MARC 020

MARC 022

MARC 024

MARC 028

MARC 086

Note on identification for multipart monographs and serials、integrating resources、online resource

(連續性出版品、整合資源及線上資源的識別項附註說明)

RDA 2.20.13

MARC 588

Content type

(內容類型)

Media type

(媒體工具類型)

Carrier type

(載體類型)

刪除AACR2規則的資料類型GMD表示法及MARC 245 $h for GMD。RDA將資料類型細分新增為3欄位如下

-    Content type : 如 text…

-    Media type : 如computer

-    Carrier type : 如 microfiche

Use”computer disc”not

“computer disk”and

“computer optical disc”

各類型使用控制詞彙表示,詞彙清單參照RDA規則6.9.1.3(content type)及3.2.1.3(media type)及3.3.1.3(carrier type)

MARC 336-338 fields :

-    $a : term

-    $b : code

-    $2 : rdacontent or rdamediaor  

Rdacarrier

-    $3 materials specified

 

 

 

RDA 6.9

RDA 3.2

RDA 3.3

 

 

 

MARC 336

MARC 337

MARC 338

336-338段是新增的MARC段

Exent

稽核項

No abbreviations for terms

(頁、冊數等不可縮寫,如pages)

Use“approximately”(not”ca”)

Use “that is”(not”i.e.”)

Use “unnumbered”(not square brackets enclosing the numeral

[200])

RDA 3.4.1.3

MARC 300 $a

Duration (長度,使用縮寫,如35min.或2hr.)

Use abbreviations : min. or hr.

min. = minute ; hr. = hour

RDA 7.22

RDA appendix B

MARC 300 $a

Iullstrative (插圖,不可縮寫)

Use”color”(not “col.”)

Use”sound”(not “sd.”)

Use”silent”(not “si.”)

Use”illustrations”(not ill.)

RDA 7

MARC 300 $b

Dimensions (高廣,使用縮寫,

如4 3/4 in.)

Use abbreviation : in. or 

in. = inches

Use symbol : cm. or mm.

RDA 3.5

MARC 300 $c

Dissertation or thesis

(博碩士論文)

New subfields (新增3分欄)

-    Academic degree, 如Ph.D

-    Faculty/institution, 如學校

-    Date, 如1997

RDA 7.9

 

MARC 502 $b

MARC 502 $c

MARC 502 $d

Index or bibliography

or appendix

(參考書目)

i.e.

504 $a Bibliography: pages 238-239

RDA 7.16

MARC 504 $a

Recourses for children

(兒童作品資源)

Intended audience

Summarization of content

RDA 7.7

RDA 7.10

MARC 008

MARC 022

MARC 521

MARC 520

MARC 856

(六) Identifying works and expressions (also called “naming the work”and “naming the expression”, same as AACR2 “main entry”) (主要款目、分析款目及檢索點) : RDA 5 and 6

(1)Simultaneous publication : different titles in same language or in  different languages. Use title first received.

(2)Creator : use having principal responsibility (preferred).If not, use the first-named creator.

 

(七) Authorized access points and authority records (權威檢索點及記錄)

(1) according to RDA ch.8-11

(2) Identifying persons (個人作者權威記錄格式) RDA 9.19

- Includes fictitious name (虛擬人物名可作個人權威記錄,如Miss Piggy)

- Most commonly known (最為人所知的)

- the first resource received (第1個列入館藏)

- Include words (e.g. Jr., Sr., IV) 如Roy Rogers, Jr.

- Sometimes, include terms of address (e.g. Dr., Mrs.,Cousin…) (含稱謂)

- Give dates for persons

-- “century”replaces “cent.”

-- “approximately”replaces “ca.”

-- use hyphens “-“ replaces “b.”and “d.”

-- “active”replaces “fl.”

- Include title (頭銜) : royalty、nobility、rank of office or religious vocation, 如100 0# $a Benedict $b XVI, $c Pope, $d 1927-

- Fuller form of name (全名) : Smith, Nancy E. $q (Nancy Elizabeth)

- Field of activity of person (專業領域專家) : always enclosed in parentheses (置於括弧內, 如(Crow Indian chief))

- Profession or occupation (職業): always enclosed in parentheses (置於括弧內, 如(Gardener))

(3)Identifying families (家族名稱權威記錄格式) RDA 10.10

- the form most commonly known (最為人知的) : surname、dynasty…

- Type of family : “Family”、”Clan”、”Royal house”、”Dynasty” always enclosed in parentheses (置於括弧內, 如(Family))

- Date (年代) : 如1802 – 1945

- Place (地點) : 如 Washington D.C., U.S.A.

綜述範例 : 100 3# $a Nayak (Dynasty : $d 1529-1739 : $c Madurai, India)

(4)Identifying corporate bodies (團體名稱權威記錄格式) RDA 11.13

- the form most commonly known (最為人知的)

- Variant spellings, choose the first resource received (第1個列入館藏)

- “Department” do not abbreviate
- Form for a conference
、congress、meeting、exhibition、festival :

-- Retain frequency (保留週期)

-- Omit year (省略年代)

-- Location : no more “ rule of three”, if conference held online, location is “ Online”.

-- Associated institution

- Date (年代) : 如1802 – 1945

- Number of a conference, use ordinal numerals, i.e. 1st, 2nd,3rd,etc.

(5) MARC 21 為權威格式新增的段號

- authority format

-- 046 : special coded dates

$k : beginning or single date created

$l : ending date created

-- 370 : associated place

$g : place of origin of work

-- 380 : form of work

-- 381 : other distinguishing characteristics of work or expression

-- 382 : medium of performance

-- 383 : numeric designation of a musical work

-- 384 : key

- for persons

-- 046 : special coded dates
-- 370 : associated place

-- 371 : address

-- 372 : field of activity

-- 373 : affiliation’

-- 374 : occupation

-- 375 : gender

-- 377 : associated language

- for families

-- 046 : special coded dates

-- 370 : associated place

-- 376 : family information

- for corporate bodies

-- 046 : special coded dates

-- 370 : associated place

-- 371 : address

-- 377 : associated language

(八) MARC 21 為權威格式新增段號的相關網站

(1) Examples for authority records

 http://loc.gov/aba/rda/training_examples.html

(2) LC Network Development and MARC Standards Office site

 http://www.loc.gov/marc/authority/ecadhome.html

(3) http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/index.html

(九) VIAF = The Virtual International Authority File (國際權威檔)

- Virtually combining the name authority file of all institutions into a single name authority service.

-- Library of Congress (LC)

-- Deutshe Nationalbibliothek (DNB)

-- Bibliotheque nationale de France (BnF)

-- OCLC – host

網址 : http://viaf.org/

               

五、Relationships (關聯關係)

(1) The first main task of RDA is identification. The second main task is relationship.

(2) Relationships on work、expression、manifestation、item、person、family、corporate body、authorized access point.如

- Shakespeare create Hamlet (for work、expression)

- Translator、editors of compilations、performers、illustrators、compilers (for person、family、corporate body)

- Whole-part、adaptations、supplements (for work)

- Revisions、editions、translations、language editions、abridgements (for expression)

綜述範例 : 700 1# $i Translation of : $a Brown, Dan, $d 1964- $t Digital fortress.

 

六、完整RDA編目規則範例 :

100 1# $a Douglas, Eric, $e author, $e illustrator.

245  10 $a Wildflowers of Australia : $b an illustrated guide for amateur botanists / $c by Eric Douglas, Ann-Marie Blake, Preston Kelley, and Sarah Nathanson ; illustrated by Eric Douglas and Sarah Nathanson.

250 ## $a Second rev. edition.

260 ## $a [Australia] : $b Nature Publishing Company, $c 2012, ©2012.

300 ## $a xix, 212 pages : $b color illustrations, photographs ; $c 24cm.

336 ## $a text $a still image $2 rdacontent

337 ## $a unmediated $2 rdamedia

338 ## $a volume $2 rdacarrier

490 0# $a Wildflowers of the world, $x 2233-4455 ; $v number XVII

700 1# $a Blake, Ann-Marie, $e author.

700  1# $a Kelley, Preston, $e author.

700  1# $a Nathanson, Sarah, $e author, $e illustrator.

   

另一作法 :

- 若正題名看到全是大寫WILDFLOWERS OF AUSTRALIA,可改為依原樣直接著錄。

- 作者可改為 $c by Eric Douglas [and three others]

- 版本看到全是大寫SECOND REVISED EDITION,可改為依原樣直接著錄。

           

七、圖書館對RDA的因應對策

(一) 了解FRBR, FRAD, ICP, RDA, MARC

(二) 制訂館方RDA編目原則,簡編或詳編,包含的核心款目等

(三) 告訴自動化廠商MARC 21及OPAC新增欄位

(四) 參加研習,多加練習

(五) 不溯及既往,AACR2規則的書目記錄與RDA規則的書目記錄可共存,美國國會圖書館的政策作法。

 

八、國家圖書館因應對策是將成立RDA研究推動小組,決定國內未來發展方針。

 

九、本館因應對策

(一) 評估將CMARC 轉換為 MARC 21,國家圖書館可提供免費軟體。

(二) 告訴自動化廠商MARC 21及OPAC新增欄位及欄位字元長度要加長。

(三) 制訂本館RDA編目原則,大小寫、多位作者表示法等。

(四) 參加中國圖書館學會研習課程。

(五) 注意國家圖書館RDA研究小組的發展動向,配合因應及實施。

(六) 編列相關作業所需經費預算。

   

 

 註 :  出處 :「RDA講習會手冊」,國家圖書館、中華民國圖書館學會主辦,民國101年3月

             21-23日。主講人 : Dr. Barbara Tillett (美國國會圖書館政策與標準部主任) 。

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